Tag Archives: wireless

Shortwave broadcasting is dying

I notice that many governments are cutting back if not shutting down their shortwave radio broadcasting operations. Shortwave radio and newspapers are both carriers of content, and both are affected by the Internet. Here’s a video from 2012 about Radio Netherlands closing its Caribbean shortwave broadcast station:

Putting all their eggs in one basket

I think that these broadcasters are shortsighted.

Providers of audio content argue that it’s cheaper to distribute their programming via the Internet. They forget that the Internet comprises many routers that reside in many countries. If a government decides to erect a firewall such as the Great Firewall of China, selected content can be blocked within that government’s jurisdiction.

One beauty of shortwave broadcasting is its simplicity. The entire shortwave route consists of only two stations: the transmitter and the receiver. Radio signals don’t respect national borders and radio jamming is expensive and never 100% effective.

In my opinion providers of other HF (high frequency: 2 to 30 MHz) services are also shortsighted, for the same reason: they’ve done away with their users’ backup systems. AT&T killed its high seas HF radiotelephone service, so now ships at sea depend solely on satellite links for shipboard telephone service. They have no backup. Ditto Loran-C: ships depend exclusively upon the GPS system for electronic navigation.


  • November, 2014: Does Shortwave Radio Have a Future?
  • August, 2010: Whatever Happened to Shortwave Radio?

    For all its transmission expense and audio problems, analog shortwave radio has one clear advantage over the Internet and domestic radio/TV: It cannot be easily blocked — even when states try to disrupt its signals using jamming transmitters.

    Webcasts can be filtered or blocked through IP geolocation techniques that block access to sites based upon the IP address of the site or the user.

John Lennon: Gimme Some Truth:


FCC’s Tom Wheeler proposes Title 2

Tom_Wheeler_FCCLast week, FCC chairman Tom Wheeler — who has deep roots in the cable TV and wireless phone industries — proposed a surprise: broadband carriers, both wired and wireless, should be regulated as common carriers under title 2 of the Telecommunications Act so that they provide uniform broadband service to all consumers. In addition, the FCC proposed that the definition of broadband should be upgraded to 25 Mbps. (It has been 4 Mbps.) Consumers will benefit from these actions.

As a compensatory gift to the cable TV companies, Mr. Wheeler proposes that there should be no last mile (the distribution cable from the carrier’s central office to the customer premise) unbundling. (The phone companies were ordered years ago to unbundle their last mile — that’s what allows companies such as DSL Extreme to offer low cost DSL service over the local carrier’s twisted pair.) AT&T, Verizon, and Comcast spend tons of money on lobbyists. They’ll expect to receive favors from Congress in return for their largesse, so Mr. Wheeler’s proposal will be in for rough sledding when it hits Congress.

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© Russ Bellew · Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA · phone 954 873-4695

Tech support

Today my T-Mobile Android phone suddenly stopped communicating with the Internet. I quickly ran through the usual troubleshooting steps. One step is to check IP connectivity by pinging an IP address on the Internet. I had no IP connectivity, but did have a decent RF HSDPA connection to a nearby cell site. These results suggested that T-Mobile’s backhaul link to their local cell site was broken.

android-pingI phoned T-Mobile customer hinderance assistance. Then I went through two tech support people who had no knowledge of the IP ping command. I asked to be transferred to someone who was familiar with ping. That person introduced herself as a member of T-Mobile’s highest tech support level. She didn’t know the ping command either but told me that she had been through the T-Mobile tech support training. She told me that that was six years ago.

This is normal. Tech support people who don’t understand the vocabulary of their trade is the rule — not the exception.

If you held a tech support position, wouldn’t you want to learn as much as possible about the technology? Why doesn’t T-Mobile require that its tech support staff know basic network vocabulary?

Visit my website: http://russbellew.com
© Russ Bellew · Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA · phone 954 873-4695

Where are T-Mobile’s cell sites?

T-Mobile’s GSM signal inside my house is marginal. My Android phone indicates field strengths from about -100 dBm to -113 dBm. (I *think* that GSM needs a minimum field strength of about -109 dBm.) I have a vague idea where T-Mobile’s nearest cell site is located, but I’m having difficulty pinpointing it.

I’ve found conflicting information from these sources:

Transmitting_tower_top_usLast week I stopped at the nearby T-Mobile store. To my surprise, none of their salespeople knew where the nearest T-Mobile cell site is located . . . nor were they interested. One guy has worked there since 1998, and never thought to learn the nearest cell site location. I’m amazed.

I spoke with a T-Mobile tech support person on the phone, who volunteered an approximate cell site location within a mile of my house. I walked in that residential neighborhood, and my phone indicated a signal strength of about -71 dBm — which would indicate that I was getting warm — but I was unable to visually identify a cellular antenna. There’s no tower, but there is a church nearby, and I’ve read that T-Mobile likes to place cell sites within church steeples. My guess is that this cell site is just a repeater, with no fiber backhaul.

If that’s the nearest cell site to my house, the signal’s path loss to my house is about 30 to 40 dB. That seems reasonable, as I *think* that T-Mobile operates in the 1700 and 1900 MHz bands and there are lots of mature trees in the path to my house.

Can you recommend a method of determining exactly where the nearest T-Mobile cell site to my house is located? Please?

Visit my website: http://russbellew.com
© Russ Bellew · Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA · phone 954 873-4695

HySky HF wireless network

Here’s a novel idea: build a wireless network of low-power HF (High Frequency – 2 to 30 MHz) radio stations to collect and transport low-speed data from remote sites.

The license granted by the FCC to HySky Technologies is intriguing. It may be unique. It grants HySky limited access to 934(!) HF frequencies. HySky’s website claims that

HySky offers an attractive alternative where cellular coverage is unavailable or , the collection of sensor data via satellites is exorbitantly expensive.

HySky boasts that its HF network will be suitable for:


  • Asset Tracking
    • GPS Asset Tracking
    • Inland Waterways
    • Geo-Fencing
    • Hazmat Tracking
  • Information Services
    • Alarm and Security
    • Citizen Emergency Notification
    • Digital Message Sign Control
    • RXR Crossing Monitoring
  • Remote Sensors
    • Rooftop HVAC
    • Flow and Power
    • Security Entry Notification
  • Homeland Security
    • First Responder Notification
    • Citizen Notification
    • Hazmat Tracking
    • Container Tracking

How HF signals propagagate

SpreadF-NPSHF signals behave differently than cellphone signals (which operate in the 700 to 1900 MHz range). HF signals can travel far beyond line-of-sight, either by hugging the Earth (called “groundwave”, a daytime phenomenon) or by reflecting from the ionosphere (called “skywave”). The biggest problem with HF is atmospheric and man-made noise. HF signal propagation varies not only hourly, but seasonally and as a function of the 11-year sunspot cycle.

One characteristic of HF groundwave propagation is that it is decidedly not line-of-sight: the signals permeate everywhere within a given radius. This may be an advantage relative to the directional characteristics of signals in the 700 to 1900 MHz range.

I’m going to guess that the HySky HF network will, on each link, dynamically try each of their 934 frequencies until the lowest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is found for that link. Apparently an out-of-band control channel will be provided by both subcarriers on broadcast FM signals and above 1 GHz signals via satellite.

HySky CEO Chief Executive Officer is Charles Maynard. I found this in Radio Ham develops HF asset tracking network:

To ensure maximum reliability, we continually test the propagation characteristics of our 954 FCC licensed frequencies within the HF radio spectrum using 44 low power transmission sites strategically located across the United States.

The mobile tracking units using this spectrum will transmit a maximum of 1 watt Effective Radiated Power using a small low- efficiency broadband antenna. The data will be received by nine stations located at low-noise [read: rural] sites across the USA which will then forward the data to customers.

An unusual network

HySky’s FCC license seems to be unique. It restricts the output power of each transmitter to 15 Watts maximum. Other license parameters: The radiated power of each HF transmitter and its antenna system(s) as typically installed must not exceed one Watt. The operational modulated emission type must be 2K80G1D. [Huh? I’ve never heard of 2K80G1D!] Maximum bandwidth is 3 kHz. The duration of each HF transmission by each transmitter must not exceed 4 seconds.

This is a very unusual system that’s now licensed and will presumably be constructed soon. I’d like to learn more about it, but can’t find many details. Can you?

Visit my website: http://russbellew.com
© Russ Bellew · Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA · phone 954 873-4695

GaN technology is charging ahead

The IEEE just concluded its Microwave Symposium in Seattle. The star semiconductor material at the symposium was Gallium Nitride (“GaN”).

Monocrystal of gallium nitride
Monocrystal of gallium nitride

GaN semiconductors exhibit fast switching speeds and high voltage breakdown characteristics together with stable gain over a wide temperature range. A friend who attended the meeting reports that GaN is pulling ahead of the more traditional GaAS (Gallium arsenide) semiconductor technology. (Older light emitting diodes — LEDs — are constructed of GaAS. Most high-brightness LEDs are constructed of GaN.)

As manufacturers learn how to fabricate sub-micrometer GaN devices, we can look forward to seeing reasonably-priced portable gadgets that use still higher frequencies — 50 GHz and higher will be feasible at reasonable cost, thanks to GaN. Possible downsides are that precipitation and even water vapor attenuate signals at these frequencies, and propagation is strictly line-of-sight. As this technology matures, marketers will find applications to exploit it.

Because of its high breakdown voltage characteristics, electrical switchgear manufacturers are developing products that use GaNs to switch high voltage circuits as well(!).

There’s still lots of GaN development to be done, but it has great promise.

Visit my website: http://russbellew.com
© Russ Bellew · Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA · phone 954 873-4695

FCC Chairman Genachowski steps down

FCC Chairman Julius Genachowski announced on Friday that he will leave his office “in the near future” and President Obama thanked him for his service.

Julius Genachowski
Julius Genachowski

For consumers, Mr. Genachowski’s 4-year reign has been both good (opposed AT&T / T-Mobile “merger”) and bad (continued growth of de facto broadband shared monopoly). The FCC has been a political playground for decades: Genachowski was a Harvard Law buddy of Mr. Obama.

Like most federal agencies, the FCC provides a cushy resting-place for ambitious lawyers who change chairs every time the music stops. Inevitably, at least one of those chairs resides within an enterprise that the agency regulates.

Lawyers have run the show at the FCC for too long.

I’d like to see an engineer appointed FCC Chairman. Absent that pipe-dream, I’d like to see Susan Crawford appointed Chairwoman. I like her motives, but I fear that, like most lawyers, she thinks that every problem can be fixed with a new law.

Visit my website: http://russbellew.com
© Russ Bellew · Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA · phone 954 873-4695

Let’s see how THIS data plan works.

I just learned that in September, T-Mobile created a new data plan called “Unlimited Nationwide 4G”. This time it may indeed be unlimited. It is not true 4G. Supposedly it has no cap. Reports are that T-Mobile was hemorrhaging customers: they lost over 200,000 customers last quarter. T-Mobile hopes that this new data plan gives them a competitive advantage over AT&T and Verizon, who no longer offer unlimited data plans.

I’ve replaced my Unlimited Plus data plan ($10 per month) with an Unlimited Nationwide 4G data plan ($20 per month). Download speed measures 3 Mbps. So far, so good.

Visit my website: http://russbellew.com
© Russ Bellew · Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA · phone 954 873-4695

Wireless hype existed a hundred years ago, also.

I came upon this hundred-year old magazine article in which Guglielmo Marconi predicts that wireless will bring wonderful things, including wireless lighting, heating and transmission of motor power. He echos Tesla’s prediction of wireless power transmission a decade earlier.

Today we read more subdued yet equally naieve predictions about wireless. The authors forget the laws of physics, that RF spectrum is a limited resource, and that since 1948 Claude Shannon’s information theory defines exactly how much information we can squeeze into one radio signal. Many of the recent utopian predictions for wireless have failed to come true, for both technical and political reasons. Many municipal Wi-Fi systems have failed because it’s impossible to squeeze a gallon of information into a pint-size jar.

I wonder how much of the 2009 Broadband Initiative money was spent on failed “shovel ready” municipal Wi-Fi systems?

Visit my website: http://russbellew.com
© Russ Bellew · Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA · phone 954 873-4695

Smart meters in Florida

Thanks to The Florida Channel, today I listened to a September 20 Florida Public Service Commission “smart meter workshop”.

The state’s power utilities presented their cases for deployment of smart meters. I was surprised to learn that all of the smart meter systems in Florida rely upon wireless communication. Florida Power & Light uses a 900 MHz mesh network: each meter transmits encrypted data only when polled; any meter may become a repeater within the network. The data exchanged with each meter are minimal and infrequent. Dynamic pricing data may be uploaded to each meter and load management is optionally available.

FPL's smart meter deployment schedule
FPL’s smart meter deployment schedule

FPL’s smart meter video:

I just wish that they had used their existing copper wires to carry signals, rather than wireless. Every meter is already connected by large gauge copper wire and transformers to its power utility. Why not use those power lines to communicate consumers’ metering data? That way, each utility need maintain only their wires, not wired plus wireless systems.

My first rule of electronic communication is, “Wireless should be your last choice, not your first choice.” Wireless communication uses precious RF spectrum, degrades reliability, and exposes content to theft.

Most utilities already use power line carrier (PLC) to provide internal protection, control, and metering (PCM) communication. PLC is a reliable medium. Yes, signal coupling capacitors must be installed across fuses and circuit breakers so that the RF carrier isn’t interrupted when the device opens during a fault event, and decoupling chokes (inductors) are needed to strip off the RF carrier occasionally. I’m surprised that the utilities wouldn’t wish to leverage this well-known communication technology and receive more return on installed outside plant.

They’ve chosen a 900 MHz wireless medium instead. Apparently the Florida PSC approved the wireless deployment.

The existing electric power distribution system is a noisy one for transport of data, I’m sure. Harmonics of 60 Hertz, switching transients, and uncontrolled line impedances must be overcome. I’m disappointed that neither system vendors nor utilities seem to have developed a viable wired solution. I’ll see if EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute, a consortium of power utilities) has researched this. I wish that the PSC had leaned on FPL a bit more to encourage use of PLC for smart meters.

FPL Residential smart meterI smugly thought, “This doesn’t concern me. I have an old analog meter.” Then I walked outside and just to be sure, peered at my FPL meter. It’s brand-new and wears an FCC ID tag, marking it as a smart meter. A wireless smart meter.

Excellent smart meter info: http://www.arrl.org/electric-utility-communications-applications-and-smart-grid-technologies

Questions about FPL’s smart meters: http://smartmetermatrix.org/

23 Dec 2012 Addendum: I’ve re-considered my stance. Relying upon the existing electric wires for communication is equivalent to in-band signalling; if an electric wire is cut, control and communication fails as well. I’m not enthused about using a wireless medium for control and communication, but I endorse the idea of using out-of-band signalling. Since no alternative out-of-band medium exists, wireless is our only choice.

Visit my website: http://russbellew.com
© Russ Bellew · Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA · phone 954 873-4695

Android-based WiFi spectrum analyzer in my pocket

Display nearby WiFi access points in the palm of your hand.

Meraki website
screenshot: PC Magazine

When I arrive at the site of a client who needs WiFi help, my first step is to survey the site for existing WiFi RF signals. I usually use NetStumbler on a netbook. Now I can perform a similar survey on my Android phone, which I carry in my pocket.

I’ve tried Meraki WiFi Stumbler and Wigle WiFi Wardriver. For this survey application, I prefer Meraki WiFi Stumbler. It provides a bar chart with WiFi channel numbers on the x-axis and wireless access points’ (identified by their SSIDs) signal strengths in dB on the y-axis. It seems to be less sensitive and scan slower than Wigle, but its display is ideal for a quick WiFi site survey. Wigle is more comprehensive and an impressive piece of work, but its added features aren’t needed for ad-hoc WiFi site surveys.

My headline calls this hardware/software system a “spectrum analyzer”. That’s not strictly true. A full-blown spectrum analyzer displays all of a signal’s blemishes: distortion products, noise sidebands, harmonics, etc. The graph displayed by Meraki is merely a symbolic representation of nearby WiFi signals, after filtering out their blemishes. In most cases, it’s all the information that I need.

Oct 22: I’ve begun to use WiEye. I like it. Its display is simple, provides excellent resolution, and quick response. I found it in the Google Play Store.

spectrum analyzer photo: Vonvon

Visit my website: http://russbellew.com
© Russ Bellew · Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA · phone 954 873-4695

Extending the Internet off-Earth

Tracy Caldwell Dyson in Cupola ISS

Self portrait of Tracy Caldwell Dyson in the Cupola module of the International Space Station observing the Earth below during Expedition 24.
photo: NASA/Dyson
Providing Worldwide Web access to the International Space Station is one thing.

Providing the ability to browse the web from Mars and beyond will be quite another.

Today, the crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS) can browse the web about as easily as you or I can. It’s relatively easy to provide web access, because the ISS orbits at an altitude of less than 300 miles, so packets traverse the radio link quickly and then they travel on terrestrial fiber. [Description of NASA’s Disruption Tolerant Networking for Space Operations (DTN)]

In the future, browsing the web across millions of miles will be tough, because of network latency, which is the transit time required for a packet to travel from sender to receiver, and good old multi-path RF (radio frequency) signal problems familiar to mobile radio users. Doppler shift may also cause trouble.

When we earthlings browse the web, our computer converses with at least two servers: our DNS (domain name system) server, and the desired web server. These conversations take place at nearly the speed of light — 186,000 miles per second. Typical latency across a few hundreds or thousands of miles is so small that we’re barely aware of these conversations.

Once we leave the realm of Earth, though, long distance radio links will cause long network latencies. The distance to Mars varies, but if we assume a minimum of 40 million miles, network latency will approach 4 minutes. (Our mechanical hero, Explorer 1, is 11 billion miles away. Radio signals from it require 14 hours to reach us.) Because of relative movement between transmitter and receiver, there’s bound to be transmission errors, and if just one garbled packet must be resent, it will require 8 minutes.

Some form of FEC (forward error correction) will help, but impose its own overhead. I suppose that frequency diversity may help the multi-path problem, but it will impose a complexity and power-consumption cost. I’ve never tried to use a web browser on such a sluggish network, but I’m sure that it’s frustrating, if not impossible. To some extent, the users could be helped by installing local DNS and caching proxy servers on Mars, but this would work only for frequently visited static pages.

RF signal latency will either halt exploration or force colonization

The Landing of Columbus at San Salvador, October 12, 1492.

Space explorers will eventually need to create their own little colonies far removed from Earth — sort of what the colonists did in the new world. Not only will their new colonies include their own local networks, but quite likely their own dialects, and eventually their own languages. As mankind explores the solar system and beyond, it’s likely that the explorers and colonists will develop their own amenities and technologies. Will their bodies evolve to adapt to their new environments? If so, at what point does it make sense to define them as something other than Homo Sapiens?

The next question is, Are we descendants of colonists from a distant planet?

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© Russ Bellew · Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA · phone 954 873-4695

Steerable antennas

Steerable directional antennas offer advantages that justify their difficult fabrication.

My old 75-meter parasitic array

When designers need to improve the performance of any radio system, they turn their attention to improving the antennas, which improves system transmit AND receive performance. When I was a teenager, I was a ham radio nut. Most of my radio adventures took place in the HF (high frequency) amateur radio bands between 2 and 30 MHz — a fraction of the 2.4 and 5 GHz (GigaHertz) frequencies where today’s WiFi action is. A wavelength at 4 MHz (MegaHertz) is about 75 meters — antennas in this range are large. I strung a simple 75 meter band half-wave horizontal dipole antenna atop my parent’s house; it radiated in the east-west directions, was about 120 feet long, and worked fine. I had no money to invest, but wanted better antenna performance. I settled on constructing a 2-element parasitic array, which I did by adding a second horizontal dipole more or less in parallel, spaced about 1/8 wavelength apart from the first dipole. I ran a half-wavelength open-wire transmission line from my station in the basement to the center of the second dipole. I was able to electrically shorten and lengthen the second dipole by placing a variable capacitor across the end of the transmission line. The second (“parasitic”) antenna element’s radiation would either reinforce or subtract from the driven element’s signal, depending upon what reactance I added at the far end of that 1/2 wavelength transmission line.

How well did it work?

Because of physical constraints, none of this array’s dimensions was ideal, but it did yield about a 2 to 3 dB (decibel) front-to-back ratio, in either the East or West direction as I chose. Not great numbers, but I knew nobody else who could “steer” his antenna at such a long wavelength. I noticed the improvement when receiving: the signal to noise ratio (SNR) would improve slightly when I steered the antenna in the direction of the transmitting station, which was usually hundreds of miles away.

In theory, the array’s vertical angle of radiation was lower than that from a single dipole. I never measured this, but the array did seem to work better on long skip propagation than did the dipole.

Steerable Parasitic Antenna Array, 5 GHz
Illustration: L. Petit, L. Dusopt and J. Leheurte, “MEMS-Switched Parasitic-Antenna Array for Radiation Pattern Diversity” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol, 54, M. 9, Sep 2006.

Steerable WiFi Antenna Arrays

Today the same principle is being applied to electronically steerable parasitic element antennas in the GHz (GigaHertz) range. At 2.5 GHz, a wavelength is only about 5 inches, so construction is relatively easy. They’re often constructed as illustrated: etched from a copper laminate on a non-conductive substrate, so dimensions are tightly controlled. They’re steered under program control, not by a kid sitting in the basement. I’ve not tested their performance, but I’ll bet that they beat my old 75-meter band parasitic array by a wide margin.

Electronically steerable antenna arrays are now used in some new MIMO (multiple-input and multiple-output) wireless WiFi access points. The relatively new WiFi standard known as IEEE 802.11n specifies MIMO, which allows greater throughput with less signal fade. Each antenna is dynamically steered as required by each frame: at 2.5 GHz, that’s just a hundredth of a microsecond or so. The exact steering of the antenna may be varied from frame to frame. IEEE 802.11n provides for four steerable antennas per transceiver. That requires a ton of high-speed computing power just to steer the antennas!

AWACS antenna photo by Daderot
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© Russ Bellew · Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA · phone 954 873-4695

Facebook quickly withdraws its stalker’s app

Facebook Friendshake screen
screenshot: facebook
Another reason why I’m glad I don’t have a Facebook account.


Months ago, Facebook acquired Glancee, a small company that had developed a smartphone app that used smartphones’ GPS information to locate people. Facebook renamed it Friendshake, while they tested it within their Facebook mobile apps. In June they renamed it “Find Friends Nearby” (FFN) and quietly rolled it out.

The FFN app was quickly dubbed “the stalker’s app” and within 10 days of release, Facebook withdrew it. You can see if it works or not by going to www.fb.com/ffn.

I’m surprised that Facebook and other social networks can change their games’ rules, as the games are being played. What sort of Terms Of Service (TOS) have Facebook users signed? Apparently it’s a carte blanche.

If you provide an online service, try to change your privacy policy. Most jurisdictions will require that all existing users first agree to the change. The U.S. is lax in its privacy protection, but the EU is strict. I won’t be surprised if they bring suit against Facebook over “Find Friends Nearby”.

What will DOJ and EU do about Google’s wardriving?

Google Streetview cars
parked in front of Gate-One hotel in Bratislava, Slovakia
photo: Loskutak
Google’s “rogue engineer” is the author of NetStumbler.

What’s NetStumbler? It’s a program that’s been used since the early 2000’s by wardrivers — people who drive around with laptop PCs, a WiFi interface adapter, a GPS receiver, and software to look for wireless access points. (“What is Wardriving and What Can I Do to Prevent It?”) Their software of choice: NetStumbler.

I’ve used NetStumbler many times to survey clients’ sites. It turns your laptop into a simplified spectrum analyzer, dedicated just to WiFi channels. It allows me to place a client’s new wireless access point (WAP) on the least occupied channel.

Although I’ve never used its geo-tracking ability, NetStumbler will also record, using input from a GPS receiver, the geographic coordinates of each wireless access point. Apparently Google claims that its managers weren’t aware that its Streetview cars were recording wireless access point data and their coordinates. Google blamed it on a “rogue engineer”.

It turns out that Marius Milner, the author of NetStumbler, is/was a Google employee who developed software for the Streetview project. I’m not sure whose jurisdiction in the US this falls under. In general the FCC (Federal Communications Commission) cares only about radio frequency signals that are transmitted, not who’s receiving them. European authorities are stricter about the reception of radio signals.

I suspect that this issue has a long way to go through investigation before any law enforcement action is taken by any government agency.

Visit my website: http://russbellew.com
© Russ Bellew · Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA · phone 954 873-4695